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Harih Om Tat Sat. Jai Guru. Jai Guru.
Yesterday, while discussing Bhagavad Gita, we came to the end of the sankhya section of the exposition. ‘S’ asked me, “What is meant by sāṅkhya?” This sāṅkhya, I mentioned that ’samyak khyāyate paṭhyate’. A further definition is ‘khyāyate paṭhyate anena iti sāṅkhya’. The supreme truth is very well known or studied only by this exposition. So, whatever exposes you to the supreme truth is called sāṅkhya. It is the truth discussed in the Upanishads, and this sāṅkhya truth is not so much to be read as to be told. The word ‘ख्या’, the important meaning relevant to us is, “It has to be narrated, exposed, told or explained by somebody”. Our upanishads themselves have a meaning उपः, समीपे, निषद्, to sit, to sit close to the teacher and then listen to it from the teacher.
So, this sāṅkhya is such a subtle truth that it will be clear to you only when you hear it from a person who has realised the truth and who is capable of explaining to the others, primarily resorting to reason and philosophical line of thinking.
I said this is the last portion, concluding statement of the sāṅkhya section. What is that statement? सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा. So many times I have explained that our life is an interaction between the senses and the world objects. These interactions in a way take place at the bodily and sensory level. Though it is the mind that gives us the experience of the body, experience of the senses, and mind alone employs them for interactions, so, the senses and the body cannot independently exist or function. Mind again is behind them. But we generally don’t know it.
So to start with, let us think that the interactions are taking place in the sensory level. Throughout the wakeful hours, we are only acting and interacting with our senses, our body. And all these actions and interactions bring about and result in only the twin experience of sukha and duḥkha. So you can say, our whole life as well as the entire world will be equal to sukha-duḥkhas. You cannot get anything more than or different from sukha-duḥkhas from the total worldly life.
Now Krishna says, “These sukha-duḥkhas are to be evenized in your mind. It’s a very great statement, though very simple appears to be. What is meant by evenizing them? After all, these sukha-duḥkhas are produced - By what? They are inhering or abiding where? Though you feel that interactions with the objects bring about sukha-duḥkhas, the interactions proceed from the mind, they subsist on the mind, they also conclude in the mind. So, the sukha-duḥkhas do not have a ground or a basis other than the mind. The mind causes them, the mind experiences them, and the mind alone concludes or terminates them every time.
What you have to do is, what is the source of sukha-duḥkhas in the experiential level? Our mind. If the mind is the source of sukha-duḥkhas, the mind can as well do whatever it wants about them, because they are produced by the mind, preserved by the mind. So, the mind can do whatever it likes. Normally, what does it do? It prefers the sukha and it has an abhorrence, a prejudice towards the duḥkha. So, first of all, it produces sukha-duḥkhas and it also produces a preference and prejudice. Mind is the source of the preference and prejudice as well as the sukha-duḥkhas. Knowing that it is so, you take a different attitude. “I will not be having a preference for sukha and a prejudice for duḥkha. On the other hand, I will have an evenness of outlook towards both.” This is the fundamental and ultimate change that you want. It is not very difficult, it is very simple, provided you will be governed by your knowledge. So, adopt the even attitude towards them.
When, instead of having a preference and prejudice towards both, either and both, suppose you start developing an even and harmonious attitude towards them, then the intensity of sukha declines, equally so the intensity of duḥkha also declines. In no sukha, will you feel so excited or blinded. In the duḥkha also, the same thing. You will not be unnecessarily excited by a duḥkha or blinded by duḥkha. An altogether new attitude of evenness and harmony will develop in you. That attitude of harmony and evenness, he says, that is what we want.
You have answered, you have handled, you have transcended, you have risen above the entire world which has only two experiences or responses or reactions to provide for you. Just see, such a simple formula! And once you strike this evenness towards sukha-duḥkhas, that itself will look after the problem of sin in life. The word ‘sin’ means what? A feeling that I am doing something wrong. After all, what are we doing? We are doing what our nature propels us to. As long as it is not harmful to the others, I don’t think any action can be found wrong. Suppose you hurt another man either by word of speech or by your thought or by an action, it is wrong. As long as no harm is sought to be done to another, any action that you do, I don’t think it can be considered sinful at all.
Just like you should not do anything harmful to another, you should not also do anything harmful to yourself. What is meant harmful to yourself? Suppose you cover the whole of your body with a bed sheet, including the nose and head and you start lying, then what will happen? You will start breathing your own respirated air. That means, carbon dioxide will be breathed, you may die. In the same manner, you should not do anything harmful to yourself.
So, sinfulness is not merely not hurting others, not hurting yourself also. An action you may do now, later on you may feel, “No, I did not do it properly.” So a sense of guilt will follow you. It is self-victimising. That is also sinful. So, this sin will be completely looked after by this even attitude.
नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि ।
naivaṁ pāpam-avāpsyasi ।
(Bhagavad Gitā 2.38)
I would like you to reflect upon this verse for hours and hours and hours. What is the fundamental point? That the entire world with which we interact throughout our life has only two experiences to offer, sukha and duḥkha. Actually these are not produced by the world; they are related to the world. The producing centre, the source is our own mind. If our mind is the cause of sukha-duḥkhas, our mind is also the redress for them.
Suppose there is a cyclone, a hurricane, an earthquake or extreme rain, when all these things take place on the surface of the earth, the solution is not in the air, it is not in the rain, it is not in the earthquake, the solution is in the earth. The earth will have to assimilate the impacts and become normal so that life in this earth thrives. It may be caused by air, by water, by earth’s own quaking, but the solution for all these things will have to come from the earth itself. So, the source of sukha-duḥkhas is our mind. Naturally, the redress for them also should come from the mind. Will you believe this, understand this and hold on to this point?
The moment you start understanding in this manner, from next moment onwards, the density and intensity, the severity of sukha-duḥkhas will simply decline. It doesn’t take a minute further. “Oh. Is it so? My own mind is the source of sukha-duḥkhas and my mind holds the redress for them?” That very consciousness, awareness will simply act upon the sukha-duḥkha twins, opposites, and then you will find, it is just like a very small pen torch. In pitch darkness, if you press the button, you will find the darkness will be lessened, it will flee. In the same manner, you will find the intensity of the sukha-duḥkhas starts declining, declining, declining and it can go to any extent. It depends upon the individual’s parameters.
How far can you be sensitive to your own finding? How far will you act upon this finding? I can tell you that when I read this, this is my development, the manner in which I explain this verse मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय (Bhagavad Gita 2.14), I don’t know whether anybody has explained it. You know, ever since I read it and I have been a speaker for a long time, sixty years, I found a great, I made a great discovery, it was a great uncovering. The whole wonderful brahmajñāna path became facile, simple, easy and within reach. And it is the same thing that Krishna has developed into what?
इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः ।
निर्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद्ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः ।।
ihaiva tair-jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṁ sāmye sthitaṁ manaḥ ।
nirdoṣaṁ hi samaṁ brahma tasmād-brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ ।।
(Bhagavad Gitā 5.19)
“When the mind is established in sāmya, he is established in Brahman, the Supreme Truth.” he says.
So, I would like you to have a right point of view. It is not very hard, it is a very simple truth and concerning your own mind, your own sukha-duḥkhas, the world which causes it. So it is a full solution for everything in life and also a full redress for everything that you call sinfulness or adversity.
Harih Om Tat Sat. Jai Guru. Jai Guru.